Sensory Design Biblio 2
Notes to CHapte4
51. Walter J. Ong. “The Shifting Senee
Sourcebook in the Antbropology of thr Srnars, ed tyod
Toronto Press, 1991), 26.
52. lbid., 28
53. Mallory Wobet. “”T he Sensotype Htypiotheoie,” Varinin af dsary fyseue
A Sourcebook in the Anthropology of the Sensrs. ed
Toronto Press. 1991), 33.
54. Constance Classen. The Seneory Ordere of
A Sonrvebook in the Anthrapolngy af the Sensrs, ed, tsedi ptiowes (farsnns
University of Toronto Press. 1991), 59.
55. David Howes and Constance
Sensory Experience: A Sourcebook in the Amthropoings nf the SuPnses ed
Clacsen. “Soundinig SeiNenPy Piraliliee” i
(Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991), 257.
56. Rudolf Arnheim. Entropy and. Ar: An Esay Dismdes Ode eellee
versity of California Press, 1971). 34.
57. Rudolf Arnheim. The Dynamies of Architectural Form (Rerkaey: Uniwvenity af
California Press, 1977), 263.
58. Arnheim, Entropy and Art, , 2.
59. Ibid., 3.
09 David Canter and Stephen Tagg. “”The Empirical Clastifcation Bulding
Aspects pue Their Attributes, in Meaning and Bebaviour in the Baili Enoiranment. ed.
Geoffrey Broadbent, Richard Bunt, and Tomas Llorens (New York:
John Wiey and Sons,
61. Ibid., 2. Thus, for Canter and Tagg, all space is cultural space, the resulic of medl.
62. Ibid., 16. As will become apparent in a later chapter, this emphasis on the mper-
tance of objects should come as no surprise.
4. The Meaning of Meaning
1. Willam James, “What Is an Emotion?” in The Emotions, by Car Georg Lange
and William James (1884; New York: Hafner, 1967), 1.
2. Wolfgang Köhler, Gestalt Pychology (New York: Liveright, 1947), 227.
4. James chose in this argument not to discuss this particular kind of feeling,
alhough he does return to such discussion in his Principles of Psychology (published
5. James, “What Is an Emotion?” 13. James refers to examples such as meeting
bau, becoming frightened, and then running; or alternatively, losing our moncy.becom:
upon losing OUE
ing sorry, and then weeping The more rational sequence would be that
money, we cry and thus feel sorry. That is, the physical response follows the event,imme-
ly appear recent directhy response see 6, On to why in Ibid. from the research more fact the Köhler James symbolic indicates constitutes consistently individual, would level maintains, that be the in (Chicago respond favorably advance emotional moreover, emotion. to Tribune, of that all disposed emotional response 27 this experience sort January toward may stimuli of be this 1995). physical the gender physically, stimulus. hypothesis.) response and specifc; is (One women that Indeed, called can is, tend forth read- fairly men to
diately producing the emotion- indeed, so immediately hat our experience of the
1.- Sensory Cues
and Place: The Perspective of Experience (Minneapolis: Univer-
Yi-Fu Tuan, Space
sity Minnesota of Chung “Plum (New York: McGraw Hill
Press, 1977), 6
Blossoms, in Xomen Poets China, trans. and ed. Ken
2. Chu Shu-chên,
Rexroth and Ling
of our argument, assume that Chu Shu-
We will, for the sake
A Robert experienced Baron and of Jill Pleasant Thomley, A Fragrances Whiff on of Task Reality: Performance Positive Affect and as a Helping, Poten-
situation m poetic form.
-chên is repofting a
Mediator of the Effects
Environment puv Behavior 26, no. 6 (1994): 766
S. In particular they cite the work of
Baron, Environmentally-Induced Positive Affect: Its Impact on Self-Efhicacy,
Baron and Warm, Dember,
Task Performance, Negotiation, Negotiation, and and c auced Positive Affe “, Dember,and Parasuraman.
Conflict, Journal of Applied Social Psychology z6. no.
Warm, William N. Dember, and Raja Parasuraman, ‘Effects of
6 (1990): 766-84; JoelS.
Olfactory Stimulation on Performance and Stress ina Visual Sustained Attention Task,”
Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists 12 (1991): 1-12.
“A Whiff of Reality,’ 768. H. Ehrlichman and Y
6 Baron and Thomley,
Halpern, “Afect and Memory: Effects of Pleasant and Unpleasant Odors on Retrieval of
concerning the Unhappy A. Effects Baron of and Pleasant Marna I. Fragrances Bronfen, on “A Whif Work-Related of Reality: Behavior, Empirical Journal Evidence of
Memories,’ Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (1988):
Applied Social Psychology 24 (1994): I179-I203.
S7. Baron and Thomley, “A Whiff of Reality, 769. One interesting study found
that individuals exposed to pleasant fragrances tended to process information in persua-
sive messages in a manner similar to that of individuals put in a positive mood by che
bestowal of a monetary gift. See K.G.De Bono, “Pleasant Scents and Persuasion: An
Information Processing Approach,” Journal of Applied Social Pychology 22, no. u (992):
8. Charlotte Mew, “Rooms,” in The Penguin Book of Women Poets, ed. Carol Cos
Joan Keefe, and Kathleen Weaver (New York: Penguin Books, 1978). 364.
Behavior, June Michael 1969, Southworth, “The are visual-auditory Sonic Environment subjects conclusions, in of his Cities, study. were Environment by both and
S9 While these
(Garden City, N.Y.:
auditory and (to a lesser degree)
10. Joseph Conrad, “Heart of Darkness, in Tales of Land and Sea
Hanover House, I953), 62.
trans. M. D Herter
11. Ibid., 64. e ionpk eoit”
12. Tuan, Space and Place, I8.
Rainer Maria Rilke, The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge.
amazed when their designs met with publie disapproval
New York: Capricorn Books, 1958), 13. ee
the processes that occurred within the struc-
14. Thus have architects been
Smell: The Secret
not because of their appearance but because
with noxious Anton in (New iS van the sound York: or essential Farrar, Amerongen smell. Straus agreement and and Hans between Giroux, de Vries, this 1994),
tures were inherently
15. Piet Vroon
position taken by Henry James (in chapter Brain, 3). in Perfumery: The Pychology and Biology
trans. Paul Vincent
16. Ibid Also worth noting
S. Van Toller, “Emotion and and the Hall, 1988),
Notes to Chapter 7
King “Anxiety Reduction Using Fragrances, in
and Biology of Fragrance (London: Chapman and Hall, 1988), Perfumery:
the orders perhaps [October 20. 19. repellent (New be Tryeg Ibid., a 1987], York: 156. point the substance Engen, notes See of E. that number that Odor concern and is there Gellhorn of is that, readers no to distinctive and G. innate rating according N. Memory gas to avoidance as a mercaptans Loofbourrow, a a National warning as response Emotions agent. “unpleasane” Geographie association) to and (Iindeed. Publithers, smell dropped erhylmercaptan. with D
(New York: Praeger
10. The author
their age.) All that is required is a
odor (and learned
(Robert Tisserand, Aromatherapy: To Heal and Tend
Lotus rescarchers Press, 1988]) do, however, describe a repulsion reaction'” in New
to arouse us.
disease, decay, rot, and dampness that warn them of danger. Thus humans find the odors
that indicate such states inherently repugnant.
21. Arthur I. Rubin and Jacqueline Elder, Building for Pcople: Behavioral Resarh
Approackes and Directions, Special Publication 474 (Washington, D.C.: National Burem
of Standards, 198o), 198.
22. Forrest Wilson, A Graphie Survey of Perception and Behavior for the Deigr Phote
sions (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984), 191.
24. Heidi A. Walk and Elizabeth E. Johns, “Interference and Facilitation in Shore.
Term Memory for Odors,” Perception and Psychopbysics 36, no. 6 (1984): 5o8.
25. Trygg Engen and Bruce M. Ross, “Long Term Memory ofC Odors with and with
Verbal Descriptions, Journal of Experimental Psychology 100, nO. 2 (1973): 25- Sngen
and Ross hypothesize that odors have litle attribute redundancy, leading to poorimme
diate retention but great resistance subsequently to the distortion of immediately reained
26. Frank F. Schab. “Odor Memory: Taking Stock, Pychological Bulletin
27. Michael D. Rabin and William S. Cain, “Odor Recognition: Familiario,
.. .Emiliarit Iden
ifability, and Encoding Consistency, Journal of Experimental Psycbology Learning
Memory, and Cognition 10, no, 2 (1984): 325.
28. Engen and Ros, “Long- Term Memory of Odors,” 226. Although ochee sudis
undertaken since this seminal investigation have questioned the degre to which smellis
unique sense modality, the enduring quality of odors seems clear
30, Trygg Engen, “Remembering
Odors and Their Names,” American Sciauish
31, Ibid. wuue 1967, 498. Thus the superiority of déja sentir over deja vu.
32, Vroon, Smell, 103. Vroon describes this mechanism “state-
33. Ibid ea under the sa a certain physioloo: ee nanism as “state-dependent rerieval’:
what a person has learned in a certain physiological or mental state-or even place-can
be remembered under the same circumstances.
36 35. Phenomenology Juhani Engen Charles 1OS. of Pallasmaa, Baudelaire, ‘Remembering Architecture, A and “Architecture Odors Phantom: Jackson and of The the Mathews Holl, Their Seven Juhani (New Senses, trans. York: 497. Pallasmaa, in Lewis New Questions and Piaget 195s, in
Flowers of Evil, ed, Marthiel
Gómez (Tokyo: a X u Publishing 1994), 32.