Notes to Chapte7
38 Alan Hirsch, “Scenting GeneratioN CA CHilrks
(1992): 13. While the list in the atticle spprovcinnseely
here, our list is entirely representative of escbovt type.
40. Kenneth Grahame, The Wind the Wilimx (wyele New
41. M. D. Kirk Smith. Ci Van Toller. snd H. todld
ditioning in Human Subjects,” Biological Psyebnlngy 17 (roke)
42. David Meyers. “Nobody’s Piret Home 1e Perfect,” C haengs fribuse, Hhome Cuide
April 1995, see. A P. 2. The authot says that many eslee agenee avear
Pies baking in the kitchen can urigget potential bryere memories the Wereee they
Srew up in. Assuming they are fond memotied, thie tendie malke the sellier’e heme mneee
chse enekiee and
43. Thygg Engen would likely argue that it toe the smell of cotfiee per se the
matters but that an unfamiliar place
-whose odots therefore tend
picion-is made familiar
with a common masking odot.
44. Baron and Thomley, “A Whiff of Reality, 767.
be viewved with se
45. M. lwahashi, “Scents and Science,” Vogue April
46. Robert A. Baron and Marna 1. Bronfen, “A Whiff of Realiey. Empirical Bvidenee
concerning the Effects of Pleasant Fragrances on Work-Related Behavior,” irnal %
Applied Social Psychology 24, no. 13 (1994): 1179
47. Baron and Thomley, “A Whiff of Reality,” 7&t.”The
adaptation to specific fragrances that would seem to militate againse ouE cheie thse thes rapid
be countered by alternating scents, and by normal employce mobility. Thus they conelude
that there may in fact be some potential
for the employment of scent
49. C. Clifford “New Scent Waves, Self, December 1985. 115-17.
50. Margaret Schleidt, Peter Neumann, and Harumi Morishita, “Pleasure and Dis-
gust: Memories and Associations of Pleasant and Unpleasant Odours in Germany and
Japan, Chemical Senses 13, no. 2 (1988): 287.
51. Ibid., 292.
52.J. Douglas Porteous, Landscapes of the Mind: Worlds of Sense and Metaphar
(Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990), 25.
53. Ibid., 45-
54, Thomas Wolfe, You Can’t Go Home Again (1934; New York: Harper and Row.
197), 123. As one of the present authors is from New York, he can attest to the descrip-
55. Rilke, The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, 14:
$6, Southworth, “The Sonic Environment of Cities,” 49.
57. Ibid., $2, He does point out that high information transfer accompanies a con-
gruence of visual and auditory information; when attention-demanding sounds
wongruous with visual information, less total information is transmitted
58. Douglas Pocock, “Sound and the Geographer, The Geographical Association,
“The Sonic Environment of Cities, 70. Place, and. Environment:
Phenomenology Murray Schafer, “Acoustic Space, Dweling
Nrte Columbia of Person and World, ed. David Seamon and Robert Mugerauer (New
University Press, 1994), 87.
Notes to Chapter 7
61. Paul Devereux and Robert G. Jahn, “Preliminary Investigations and Cognitive
Considerations of the Acoustical Resonances of Selected Archacological
70 (July 1996): 666. Schafer similarly discusses the Neolithic cave of Hypogeum on Malta
dating to circa 2400 B.C., which was likely a shrine or oracular chamber with remarkable
acoustic properties. Specifically, its resonance frequency is about 90 Hz and thus has the
capacity to dramatically amplify the male voice.
62. Aaron Watson and David Keating, “Architecture and Sound: An Acoustic Analy-
sis of Megalithie Monuments in Prehistoric Britain,'” Antiquity 73 (February 1999): 326.
63. Ibid., 335.
64. Pocock, “Sound and the Geographer, 193.
65. Ibid., 194.
66. Rilke, The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, 14.
67. In fact, in Southworth’s study the visual subjects (without hearing) had the worst
impression of the city, finding much more imperfection in its form than did the other
68. Carl Sandburg, Chicago Poems (Urbana: University of Ilinois Press, 1992), 17.
69. Keith Waldrop, “A Door Opening,” Poetry and the Problem of Beauy, ed. Lisa
Samuels, Modern Language Studies 27, no. 2 (spring 1997): 23.
70. Porteous, Landscapes of the Mind, 48.
71. Lee E. Farr, “Medical Consequences of Environmental Home Noises,” in People
and Buildings Buildings, ed. Robert Gutman (New York: Basic Books, 1972), 206.
72. Porteous, Landscapes of the Mind, 48. Even the extensive studies generated by
audio engineers have been primarily concerned with soundfelds (the environment of
sound sources) rather than soundscapes (the environment of the receiver of the sound).
73. Ibid., 63. Schafer found, for example, that the isobel maps that were prepared for
three Viennese parks which are now located alongside busy streets revealed minimum
ambient sound levels of 48 dBA, and an average of 55 dBA To put this in context, T
should be noted that 52 dBA is the established Speech Interterence Level for
” c ticicice Level Tor normal con-
versation at four meters.
74. R. Murray Schafer, The Tuning of the World (New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
75. Indeed, Schafer has much to say about Muzak, which he refers to as Moozak,
none of it complimentary. He points out that quite aside from the effective destruction
of the music it purports to be playing, there is an even more insidious program at work:
the conscious effort to control the psychological and physiological reactions of its victims
to specific behavioral ends.
76. Schafer, The Tuning of the World, 96. The result, he maintains, is an extraordinary
isolation and disengagement; whether experienced through the continual presence of the
radio for the teenager, television for the housewife, and Moozak for everyone.
77. Ibid., 220. While We cannot attest to the truth of this observation we
having actually experienced it-that a comment sotto voce from a parent to his
child carried clearly from the stage to the top tier of seats.
78. Ibid. Curiously, similar auditory experience can be had in the main entrance
vestibule of the Beckman Institute on the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign
campus. People react with delighted surprise upon hearing the echo of their voice.
79. Vituvius, The Ten Books on Arehitecture, trans. by Morris Hicky Morgan (New
York: Dover Publications, I960), 143- Oddly enough, our evidence for the existence of
these vessels 1s based on written description and some later illustrations; to the best of our
knowledge, none have been found.
We Vitruvius, text make into this The “books” Ten Books organizational did On not take Arcbitecture, distinction place until 138. while he fifteenth recognizing centuty. that the division
Notes to Chapter 7
82. Steen Eiler Rasmussen,
83 Schafer, The
e asmussen, Experiencing Architecture (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1962).
The that Actually, Hidden Tuning Schafer characterizes of Dimension, the remains many World, 62. of By 222. structures something the this, Hall is of. material- the an means simple optimist, usually that result as surface chosen he of fof assumes texture ignotance. is chae appearance, merely the
the relatively uncalculated happenstanee
utility, and cost- being used
86. Ibid., 66.
87. Thus our analysis in chapter SC of the gardens at Katsura Imperial Vila, as well. as
rather more modest tea garden in Kyoto
the 88. Rasmussen Experiencing Architecture, (77:
89. Pallasmaa, “Architecture of the Seven Senses,’ 33.
sensory 91. Susan Journal Organization of Lederman Using Experimental a and Susan Psychology: G. Abbott; Paradigm, Human Texture and Perception Visual Perception: and Versus
Studics of Inter-
92. Ibid., 914.
94. M. O. Ernst, M. S. Banks and H. H. Bulthof,
Perception of Surfaces, Perception 28, supplement (1999): Haptic 106. Feedback Affects
Sarah Rogers. for The the Body Arts, and Ohio the State Object: Ann Hamilton, 1996), I984 (Columbus,
J. RO8CIS, “L Arte Ohio State University, 1996), 15.
Ohio: Wexner Center
i blate University, 1996) 1204-1996
96. Įbid., 23.
97. Jonathan Miller, Steps and
Stairs (Otis Elevator Company, a United Technologies
Subsidary, England, n.d.), 8.
99. John Templar, The Staircase: History and Theories (Cambridge: MIT Pres,
101. John Templar, The Staircase: Studies of Hazards, Fal, and Safer Design (Cam-
A agiblt ilamein
bridge: MIT Press, 1992), 64.
102, Ibid. We have long known that sight and touch together enable us to better per-
ceive spatial characteristics. J. J. Gibson notes the affnity of vision and touch and con-
dludes that the flow of sense impressions is reinforced when the subject uses both
103. Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Hundertwasser Architecture: For a More Human
(New York: Taschen,
in Architecture Harmony with Nature, trans. Philip Mattson
point out that the gradient should never exced 1o percent, and tils
104. Ibid. He does
must be leveled to within I mm for obvious safety concerns.
10S, Templar, The Staircase: Srudies of Hazards, 66.
these three concepts has tended preoccupy the world O
106. Hall, The Hidden Dimension, I.
should be understood as a whole.
07.Ibid.IOI. The last
Space: The. Bebavioral Basis of Design (Englewood
design but the theory-notwithstanding-
108 Robert Sommer, Personal
N: Prentice Hall 1969). 86.
Notes to Chapter 8
109. Hall, The Hidden Dimension, 16.
110. 1bid., 127.
111. Sommer, Personal Space, 26.
112. 1bid., 27.
113.W.H.Auden, “Prologue: nme,The ‘The Birth of Architecture,” in About the House
York: 114. Random House, G. 1959), 4: and Robert J. Stimson, Spatial Behavior: A the Geographic
ne ffouse (New
Perspective (New York: Guilford Press, 1997), 189. The authors postulate that the senses are
viewed as functional systems designed to provide feedback and, more importandly,to seek
out environmental information. This is in keeping with the cheories of J. J. Gibson.
whom they credit.
115. Helen Keller, The World 1 Live In (New York: Century, 1908), 80.
8. No Mere Ornament
1. J. R. R. Tolkien, The Fellowship of the Ring (1954; London: Unwin Books, 1974), 81.
2. H. G. Wells, The Door in the Wall,” in The Door in the Wall and Other Stories
(I9IT; Boston: David R. Godine, 1980), 8.
3. Arthur Drexler, “Engineer’s Architecture: Truth and Its Consequences,” in The
Architecture of the Ecole Des Beaux-Arts, ed. Arthur Drexler (New York: Museum of
Modern Art, 1977), 38. This rests on the assumption that the viewer’S eye is fully sensing
the details of the architectural environment.
4. Robin Evans, “Figures, Doors, and Passages,” Architectural Design 48, no. 4
5. Evans’s proposition 1S an intriguing one. He believes that the combination of
typical portrayals of human figures life. He
and residential plans from particular eras can together
be taken as evidence of a way of
thus postulates there is a close connection
between everyday conduct and the facts of architectural organization.
6. Evans, “Figures, Doors, and Passages,” 270.
7. Ibid., 272.
8. John Bold, John Webb: Arcbitectural Theory and Practice in the Seventeenth Century
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989), 95.
9. There is also an interesting suggestion here that the rise of the corridor enhances
the development of axiality as a virtue in the nineteenth century.
10. Brodie Ann Bain, “Approaching Buildings: A Conceptual Model of the Entry
Sequence,” in Coming of Age: Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Conference of the Envi-
ronmental Design Research Association, ed. Robert I. Selby, Kathryn H. Anthony, Jaepil
Choi, and Brian Orland (Oklahoma City: EDRA, 1990), 205.
s 1 1. Ibid., 205-6. As the *mystery” element is taken from the same work of the
Kaplans that we previously mentioned in regard to landscape, we may assume thatit func
tions on the same level, and for the same reasons.
12. Ibid., 207. We might conclude that clear legibility of entry is more or less impor
tant to the degree that the entry 1s critical to our functioning:
13. Leon Battista Alberti, The Ten Books of Architecture, trans. Giacomo James Leoni
(1485; New York; Dover Publications, 1986), 21.
14. Henri Focillon, The Life of Forms in Art, trans. Charles Beecher Hogan and George
Kubler (1934; New York: Zone Books, 1989), 96. When Focillon refers to form he means
form-design, a older and far more complex idea than the modern term design conveys.