Sensory Design Biblio 3

Notes to Chapte7

37. Ibid

38 Alan Hirsch, “Scenting GeneratioN CA CHilrks

(1992): 13. While the list in the atticle spprovcinnseely

here, our list is entirely representative of escbovt type.

39. Ibid.

40. Kenneth Grahame, The Wind the Wilimx (wyele New

We

1982), 70.

41. M. D. Kirk Smith. Ci Van Toller. snd H. todld

ditioning in Human Subjects,” Biological Psyebnlngy 17 (roke)

42. David Meyers. “Nobody’s Piret Home 1e Perfect,” C haengs fribuse, Hhome Cuide

April 1995, see. A P. 2. The authot says that many eslee agenee avear

Pies baking in the kitchen can urigget potential bryere memories the Wereee they

Clione

3

Srew up in. Assuming they are fond memotied, thie tendie malke the sellier’e heme mneee

chse enekiee and

pleasant.

43. Thygg Engen would likely argue that it toe the smell of cotfiee per se the

matters but that an unfamiliar place

-whose odots therefore tend

picion-is made familiar

with a common masking odot.

44. Baron and Thomley, “A Whiff of Reality, 767.

be viewved with se

45. M. lwahashi, “Scents and Science,” Vogue April

46. Robert A. Baron and Marna 1. Bronfen, “A Whiff of Realiey. Empirical Bvidenee

1992, 22-14

concerning the Effects of Pleasant Fragrances on Work-Related Behavior,” irnal %

Applied Social Psychology 24, no. 13 (1994): 1179

47. Baron and Thomley, “A Whiff of Reality,” 7&t.”The

adaptation to specific fragrances that would seem to militate againse ouE cheie thse thes rapid

authors point

be countered by alternating scents, and by normal employce mobility. Thus they conelude

sensory

use could

that there may in fact be some potential

for the employment of scent

work settings.

48. Ibid.

49. C. Clifford “New Scent Waves, Self, December 1985. 115-17.

50. Margaret Schleidt, Peter Neumann, and Harumi Morishita, “Pleasure and Dis-

gust: Memories and Associations of Pleasant and Unpleasant Odours in Germany and

Japan, Chemical Senses 13, no. 2 (1988): 287.

51. Ibid., 292.

52.J. Douglas Porteous, Landscapes of the Mind: Worlds of Sense and Metaphar

(Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990), 25.

53. Ibid., 45-

54, Thomas Wolfe, You Can’t Go Home Again (1934; New York: Harper and Row.

197), 123. As one of the present authors is from New York, he can attest to the descrip-

ton’s accuracy.

55. Rilke, The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, 14:

$6, Southworth, “The Sonic Environment of Cities,” 49.

57. Ibid., $2, He does point out that high information transfer accompanies a con-

gruence of visual and auditory information; when attention-demanding sounds

are in-

wongruous with visual information, less total information is transmitted

58. Douglas Pocock, “Sound and the Geographer, The Geographical Association,

june

1989

194.

“The Sonic Environment of Cities, 70. Place, and. Environment:

59. Southworth,

Towards

60.

Phenomenology Murray Schafer, “Acoustic Space, Dweling

R.

Nrte Columbia of Person and World, ed. David Seamon and Robert Mugerauer (New

in

University Press, 1994), 87.

be

0n.

eZ-

314

Notes to Chapter 7

61. Paul Devereux and Robert G. Jahn, “Preliminary Investigations and Cognitive

Sites,” Antiquity

Considerations of the Acoustical Resonances of Selected Archacological

70 (July 1996): 666. Schafer similarly discusses the Neolithic cave of Hypogeum on Malta

dating to circa 2400 B.C., which was likely a shrine or oracular chamber with remarkable

acoustic properties. Specifically, its resonance frequency is about 90 Hz and thus has the

capacity to dramatically amplify the male voice.

62. Aaron Watson and David Keating, “Architecture and Sound: An Acoustic Analy-

sis of Megalithie Monuments in Prehistoric Britain,'” Antiquity 73 (February 1999): 326.

63. Ibid., 335.

64. Pocock, “Sound and the Geographer, 193.

65. Ibid., 194.

66. Rilke, The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge, 14.

67. In fact, in Southworth’s study the visual subjects (without hearing) had the worst

impression of the city, finding much more imperfection in its form than did the other

subjects.

68. Carl Sandburg, Chicago Poems (Urbana: University of Ilinois Press, 1992), 17.

69. Keith Waldrop, “A Door Opening,” Poetry and the Problem of Beauy, ed. Lisa

Samuels, Modern Language Studies 27, no. 2 (spring 1997): 23.

70. Porteous, Landscapes of the Mind, 48.

71. Lee E. Farr, “Medical Consequences of Environmental Home Noises,” in People

and Buildings Buildings, ed. Robert Gutman (New York: Basic Books, 1972), 206.

72. Porteous, Landscapes of the Mind, 48. Even the extensive studies generated by

audio engineers have been primarily concerned with soundfelds (the environment of

sound sources) rather than soundscapes (the environment of the receiver of the sound).

73. Ibid., 63. Schafer found, for example, that the isobel maps that were prepared for

three Viennese parks which are now located alongside busy streets revealed minimum

ambient sound levels of 48 dBA, and an average of 55 dBA To put this in context, T

should be noted that 52 dBA is the established Speech Interterence Level for

” c ticicice Level Tor normal con-

ire e

versation at four meters.

74. R. Murray Schafer, The Tuning of the World (New York: Alfred A. Knopf,

1977), 9.

75. Indeed, Schafer has much to say about Muzak, which he refers to as Moozak,

none of it complimentary. He points out that quite aside from the effective destruction

of the music it purports to be playing, there is an even more insidious program at work:

the conscious effort to control the psychological and physiological reactions of its victims

to specific behavioral ends.

76. Schafer, The Tuning of the World, 96. The result, he maintains, is an extraordinary

isolation and disengagement; whether experienced through the continual presence of the

radio for the teenager, television for the housewife, and Moozak for everyone.

77. Ibid., 220. While We cannot attest to the truth of this observation we

having actually experienced it-that a comment sotto voce from a parent to his

can state-

child carried clearly from the stage to the top tier of seats.

errant

78. Ibid. Curiously, similar auditory experience can be had in the main entrance

vestibule of the Beckman Institute on the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign

campus. People react with delighted surprise upon hearing the echo of their voice.

79. Vituvius, The Ten Books on Arehitecture, trans. by Morris Hicky Morgan (New

York: Dover Publications, I960), 143- Oddly enough, our evidence for the existence of

these vessels 1s based on written description and some later illustrations; to the best of our

knowledge, none have been found.

Vic

225

no

ch

ut

c

80

Vitruvius’s

We Vitruvius, text make into this The “books” Ten Books organizational did On not take Arcbitecture, distinction place until 138. while he fifteenth recognizing centuty. that the division

Notes to Chapter 7

81

82. Steen Eiler Rasmussen,

315

228.

83 Schafer, The

e asmussen, Experiencing Architecture (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1962).

The that Actually, Hidden Tuning Schafer characterizes of Dimension, the remains many World, 62. of By 222. structures something the this, Hall is of. material- the an means simple optimist, usually that result as surface chosen he of fof assumes texture ignotance. is chae appearance, merely the

84. Ibid.

noise pollution

of

85. Hall,

the relatively uncalculated happenstanee

utility, and cost- being used

86. Ibid., 66.

87. Thus our analysis in chapter SC of the gardens at Katsura Imperial Vila, as well. as

rather more modest tea garden in Kyoto

the 88. Rasmussen Experiencing Architecture, (77:

89. Pallasmaa, “Architecture of the Seven Senses,’ 33.

90. Ibid.

sensory 91. Susan Journal Organization of Lederman Using Experimental a and Susan Psychology: G. Abbott; Paradigm, Human Texture and Perception Visual Perception: and Versus

physics,

Discrepancy

(1981): 911.

Studics of Inter-

92. Ibid., 914.

Tactual Psycho-

Performance 7.

93. Ibid.

94. M. O. Ernst, M. S. Banks and H. H. Bulthof,

4

Perception of Surfaces, Perception 28, supplement (1999): Haptic 106. Feedback Affects

Sarah Rogers. for The the Body Arts, and Ohio the State Object: Ann Hamilton, 1996), I984 (Columbus,

J. RO8CIS, “L Arte Ohio State University, 1996), 15.

95.

Visual

Ohio: Wexner Center

i blate University, 1996) 1204-1996

96. ─«bid., 23.

97. Jonathan Miller, Steps and

Stairs (Otis Elevator Company, a United Technologies

Subsidary, England, n.d.), 8.

98. Ibid.,

99. John Templar, The Staircase: History and Theories (Cambridge: MIT Pres,

MIT

1992), 23.

100. Ibid.

11

101. John Templar, The Staircase: Studies of Hazards, Fal, and Safer Design (Cam-

A agiblt ilamein

bridge: MIT Press, 1992), 64.

102, Ibid. We have long known that sight and touch together enable us to better per-

ceive spatial characteristics. J. J. Gibson notes the affnity of vision and touch and con-

dludes that the flow of sense impressions is reinforced when the subject uses both

sen.ses.

103. Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Hundertwasser Architecture: For a More Human

1997), 282.

(New York: Taschen,

in Architecture Harmony with Nature, trans. Philip Mattson

point out that the gradient should never exced 1o percent, and tils

104. Ibid. He does

must be leveled to within I mm for obvious safety concerns.

10S, Templar, The Staircase: Srudies of Hazards, 66.

these three concepts has tended preoccupy the world O

106. Hall, The Hidden Dimension, I.

to

should be understood as a whole.

07.Ibid.IOI. The last

Clifs,

Space: The. Bebavioral Basis of Design (Englewood

design but the theory-notwithstanding-

108 Robert Sommer, Personal

N: Prentice Hall 1969). 86.

Notes to Chapter 8

109. Hall, The Hidden Dimension, 16.

110. 1bid., 127.

111. Sommer, Personal Space, 26.

112. 1bid., 27.

113.W.H.Auden, “Prologue: nme,The ‘The Birth of Architecture,” in About the House

York: 114. Random House, G. 1959), 4: and Robert J. Stimson, Spatial Behavior: A the Geographic

ne ffouse (New

Reginald Gcl4..

Golledge

Perspective (New York: Guilford Press, 1997), 189. The authors postulate that the senses are

viewed as functional systems designed to provide feedback and, more importandly,to seek

out environmental information. This is in keeping with the cheories of J. J. Gibson.

whom they credit.

115. Helen Keller, The World 1 Live In (New York: Century, 1908), 80.

116. Ibid

316

8. No Mere Ornament

1. J. R. R. Tolkien, The Fellowship of the Ring (1954; London: Unwin Books, 1974), 81.

2. H. G. Wells, The Door in the Wall,” in The Door in the Wall and Other Stories

(I9IT; Boston: David R. Godine, 1980), 8.

3. Arthur Drexler, “Engineer’s Architecture: Truth and Its Consequences,” in The

Architecture of the Ecole Des Beaux-Arts, ed. Arthur Drexler (New York: Museum of

Modern Art, 1977), 38. This rests on the assumption that the viewer’S eye is fully sensing

the details of the architectural environment.

4. Robin Evans, “Figures, Doors, and Passages,” Architectural Design 48, no. 4

(1978): 267.

5. Evans’s proposition 1S an intriguing one. He believes that the combination of

typical portrayals of human figures life. He

and residential plans from particular eras can together

be taken as evidence of a way of

thus postulates there is a close connection

between everyday conduct and the facts of architectural organization.

6. Evans, “Figures, Doors, and Passages,” 270.

7. Ibid., 272.

8. John Bold, John Webb: Arcbitectural Theory and Practice in the Seventeenth Century

(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989), 95.

9. There is also an interesting suggestion here that the rise of the corridor enhances

the development of axiality as a virtue in the nineteenth century.

10. Brodie Ann Bain, “Approaching Buildings: A Conceptual Model of the Entry

Sequence,” in Coming of Age: Proceedings of the Twenty-First Annual Conference of the Envi-

ronmental Design Research Association, ed. Robert I. Selby, Kathryn H. Anthony, Jaepil

Choi, and Brian Orland (Oklahoma City: EDRA, 1990), 205.

s 1 1. Ibid., 205-6. As the *mystery” element is taken from the same work of the

Kaplans that we previously mentioned in regard to landscape, we may assume thatit func

tions on the same level, and for the same reasons.

12. Ibid., 207. We might conclude that clear legibility of entry is more or less impor

tant to the degree that the entry 1s critical to our functioning:

13. Leon Battista Alberti, The Ten Books of Architecture, trans. Giacomo James Leoni

(1485; New York; Dover Publications, 1986), 21.

14. Henri Focillon, The Life of Forms in Art, trans. Charles Beecher Hogan and George

Kubler (1934; New York: Zone Books, 1989), 96. When Focillon refers to form he means

form-design, a older and far more complex idea than the modern term design conveys.

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